A voltage-driven acoustic wave can generate FMR in a ferromagnetic thin film by exploiting magnetostriction. In addition, the magnetostriction-driven FMR is a few orders of magnitude more efficient as compared to conventional Oersted field—driven FMR Given optimized IDT designs that do not suffer from large insertion losses, it should be possible to drive such a coupled system at extremely low power levels—reducing input power requirements by three orders of magnitude from more than 1 W to the submilliwatt range. Thus, the combination of acoustics-to-magnonics-to-NV centers allows for an extremely local and energy-efficient way to excite the NV centers without perturbing the surrounding environment.
Although we have used PL to probe the NV centers in this first demonstration, it is conceivable that, with proper optimization, it should be possible to detect them purely electrically by observing the power absorption itself.
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The choice of atomic levels is also not limited to NV centers—any other defect center with zero field splitting should show similar behavior. Further work should focus on these possibilities, as well as the fundamentals of the coupling mechanism between the ferromagnet and the NV centers. Advances in these areas should lead to completely integrated, that is, both electrically driven and interrogated, atomic sensors that work close to their intrinsic limits. After development, a low-power oxygen plasma treatment was performed using a Technics C Plasma Etching System to remove the remaining photoresist in the developed regions.
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Al contacts nm were deposited using a Technical Engineering Services thermal evaporator. Following a second low-power oxygen plasma treatment, the nickel and cobalt films were deposited using a custom AJA e-beam evaporator and a custom AJA sputtering system, respectively.
Commercial nanodiamonds containing NV centers Adamas Nanotechnologies were deposited by hand using laser-pulled glass pipettes at multiple locations on top of the ferromagnetic pad. The angularly resolved power absorption measurements shown in Fig. A signal generator was used to output an RF wave tuned to the first, third, and fifth harmonics of the IDTs , , and MHz, respectively , and a spectrum analyzer was used to measure the resulting output from the devices.
Data shown in the figure were normalized to the transmitted power in the presence of a large mT applied field to remove the variation in device insertion loss when operating at different frequencies Because of the harmonic operation of the IDTs, device efficiency was dramatically reduced at higher operating frequencies.
As a result of this low efficiency, the electromagnetic wave generated by the IDTs became comparable in amplitude to the acoustic signal at high harmonics. To obtain an accurate measurement of the magnetoelastic portion of the interaction, we leveraged the difference in wave speeds between acoustic and electromagnetic waves. Given the distance between the transducers and the speed of sound in the substrate, the acoustic propagation time was estimated to be approximately ns.
Thus, by only sampling the output signal after ns had passed from the start of the pulse, it was ensured that only the acoustic component of the transmitted signal was being measured. The electrical transmission data shown in Fig. The output signal was routed to a Krytar BK power diode, whose output was connected to a lock-in amplifier tuned to the low-frequency modulation of the RF source.
Because of the CW nature of the RF excitation, it was impossible to differentiate between the acoustic and electromagnetic waves. This explains the discrepancy between the power absorption shown at MHz in Figs. Optical PL measurements were performed using two custom-built NV characterization setups. A nm laser was used to excite the NV centers, and the resulting PL was measured using a photodiode in both cases. A lock-in measurement was performed by modulating the amplitude of the acoustic waves to enable the measurement of small changes in the NV PL.
Measurements of NV PL were made with two similar pump-probe setups to collect data for this paper. Data in Figs. Data from the setup used to collect data from Fig.
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Additional measurements from this setup can be found in the Supplementary Materials, showing a qualitative agreement with the data presented in Fig. We thank C. Lambert for assistance with sample preparation and P.
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Gowtham and N. Roschewsky for useful discussions. Author contributions: D.
All authors read and commented on the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Additional data related to this paper may be requested from the authors. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Sci Adv v. Sci Adv. Published online Sep 7. Purser , 3 Brendan A. McCullian , 3 P.
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Received Mar 23; Accepted Jul No claim to original U. Government Works. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license , which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited. Published on Mon, 03 Apr The chair for compiler construction had two papers during the DATE week, from March 27th to 31st, DATE is the main European event bringing together designers and design automation users, researchers and vendors, as well as specialists in the hardware and software design, test and manufacturing of electronic circuits and systems.
Published on Thu, 23 Mar Nesrine received her bachelor and masters degrees from the Superior National Engineering School of Tunis. At the CC Chair, Nesrine will work on domain specific languages e. We are glad to have Nesrine with us and are looking forward to working with her. The 30 participants, among them 5 from cfaed, enjoyed one week of interesting talks and intensive, interdisciplinary discussions about the challenges and opportunities of advancing computing beyond current CMOS technology.
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Can these materials be transformed to high-performance light emitters to disrupt established photonics technologies, particularly semiconductor lasers? The electronic, chemical and mechanical properties of quantum dot structures may lead to thermoelectric devices with a range of advantages with respect to existing ones based on bulk polycrystalline materials. Commentary 09 April Tackling the degradation of cultural heritage requires a global effort.
We call on all material scientists to develop new nanomaterials and methods for the preservation of artwork. Commentary 05 March Solid-state memory devices with all-electrical read and write operations might lead to faster, cheaper information storage.
New non-volatile memory devices store information using different physical mechanisms from those employed in today's memories and could achieve substantial improvements in computing performance and energy efficiency. Racetrack memory stores digital data in the magnetic domain walls of nanowires. This technology promises to yield information storage devices with high reliability, performance and capacity.
Commentary 06 January Metal losses affect the performance of every plasmonic or metamaterial structure; dealing with them will determine the degree to which these structures will find practical applications.