Everything that is encoded and decoded and the language used by society and cultures used all are encompassed in this theory. Appropriateness is also achieved by this theory. The theory expects that the language by which one is surrounded has an affect on how they decode and that encoding differs from language-to-language and cannot always be translated. In experimentation this has been tested and then shown.
This was then proven when I actually asked the question.
This experiment also supports the heuristic value of the theory. At the time of my experiment I had not even thought of the heuristic value of the hypothesis.
- Linguistic Relativity Essay - Words | Bartleby.
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The theory so interested me that I just did the experiment as a means of personally verifying its validity. This validity, which was tested and found to be supported, is the next of the criteria. From the experiment as well as from earlier, more notable ones it can be noted that this theory holds great value. It also accomplishes correspondence validity because the theory is very observable and has been observed numerous times. Furthermore, the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis is very simple and logically sound. Referring back to the elderly Punjabi, they did not grow up with coffee tables; therefore, it did not come to mind.
Likewise, in research done by the authors of the theory, many Indian tribes do not have word for certain objects because they do not exist in their lives. The logical plainness of this idea of relativism clearly provides parsimony. Finally, the Theory of Linguistic Relativity also achieves openness successfully. The theory is shown as a window through which to view the cognitive process, not as an absolute. It is set forth to be used in looking at a phenomenon differently than one usually would. Pragmatically the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis makes sense.
It has the potential to be used in describing a great many misunderstandings in everyday life. This notion of relativity, passes beyond dialect boundaries, and delves into the world of language--from county-to-country and consequently from mind-to-mind. Structuring of experience: from concrete domain to the abstract domain.
Partial dependence of understanding of time on understanding of space. Experimental proof of the priority of spatial information. Conceptualization of time and the problem of fictive motion. Conceptualization of time in Mandarin Chinese: ability to think about future in vertical terms up vs. Dependence of ability to think about time vertically by bilinguals on age, in which they began study English. Conceptualization of time in Kuuk Thaayorre: time goes from east to west. Dependence of absolute conceptualization of time on absolute system of spatial reference.
Absolute conceptualization of time and absolute spatial frame of reference in other Australian languages. Investigation by R. Nunez and E. Sweetser about Aymara language. Necessity to distinguish between the future and the posteriority, and also the past and the anteriority.
Future and past as deictic semantic categories. The model of moving-time and the model moving-ego. Experiments that prove objective character of these models. Sociolinguistic situation in Aymara. Sign language in Aymara. Evidences from the sign language to the idea of future-behind and past-front. Evidences to the areal character of such metaphor. Interpretations of the inverse understanding: the past as known and future as unknown. Alternative interpretations e.
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Research by P. Brown on space and time in Tzeltal. Diverse tools for the time marking. Verb morphology. Partial use of the absolute referential frame for the conzeptualization of time. Understanding of time by means of metaphor of circle.
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Sign language. Posibillity of the existence of various temporal models inside a culture. Works by O. Le Guen and J. Bohnemeyer on time in Yucatec Maya. Diverse tools for the expression of deictic time. Narrow means for the expression of posteriority. Sign language: now vs. Lack of opposition between the past and the future. Lack of any temporal metaphor. Time as unorganized consequence of complete events. Independence of time understanding from absolute frame of reference.
More general cultural model: time as cycle. Experimental data that prove the relevance of such metaphor. Temporal frames of reference. Existing models of temporal conceptualization. Researching by G. Bennardo and his colleagues. Analog of the absolute frame of reference: time arrow. Analog of the intrinsic frame of reference: events with immanent temporal orientation. Analog of the relative frame of reference: deictic time. Experiments with native speakers of Deutsch, English and Tongan. Investigation by K. Ego-perspective system. Field-based system. Experiments with native speakers of Wolof, Aymara and Japanese.
Model by T. Tenbrink: 19 types of spatial system and 8 types of temporal system. Research by V. Qualitative distinction of temporal frames of reference from spatial frames of reference.
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Transience as the main characteristic of temporal systems. Three kinds of temporal systems in English language : deictic, consequent and external. Problem of the psychological and neural reality of these systems. Part 5. The main discussion between relativists and universalists in the definition of the object for study. Munsell color system and its use. Lab color system. True problem of color in language: problem of referention and grammatical distribution.
Grammatical tools for the color naming in Australian languages R. Dixon : verbs, verbal classifiers, nouns, adjectives, derivative adjectives, adjunctives, free particles. Theory of the basic color terms.
An Historical Perspective on ‘Linguistic Relativity’ | SpringerLink
Predecessors of B. Berlin and P. Kay: E. Lenneberg, R. Brown, J. Fundamental researh by B. Material: 20 languages from different language families, and also 80 additional languages. Using of Munsell color system: different hues. Quality of the basic color category: monomorphemic, monolexemic, it is not include in range of another category, lack of connection with the particular class of objects, evidence for the language speakers.
Kay and Ch.